Prerequisites for industrial revolution
A copy of this volume survives at AAS. In succeeding years, there were many reports and articles on the possibilities for public roads, canals, and railroads.
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Some four thousand miles of canals were built between and , chiefly in New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio; with the Erie Canal the most successful, but strong regional rivalries prevented the development of a national canal system. Not until successful trials of the steam locomotive were reported from England was any concentrated effort made to establish railroads in America. The first transcontinental railroad was begun in and completed in just over five years by the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroad companies.
A Union Pacific baggage car carried a printing press on which Legh Freeman published the Frontier Index , at twenty-five different locations along the route. A group of Bostonians made the first transcontinental trip to San Francisco in and chronicled the events and scenes in The Transcontinental , published in twelve numbers, the first at Niagara Falls on May 24, the last on return to Boston on July 4.
A complete set is in the Society's collection of periodicals.
Many of the western railroad companies received large land grants along the right-of-way. As the Society's collection reveals, a flourishing business found land agents with promotional tracts in Europe as well as in the eastern United States.
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Graft was involved as well, and assorted pamphlets tell of embezzlements, railroad rings, and the Credit Mobilier building company scandal. Growth of the railroads led to a large service industry, with trade catalogs for engines, cars, and parts, as well as broadsides and brochures for freight rates and regulations, construction specifications, and operator manuals such as The Road- Master's Assistant and Section Master's Guide , by William S. Access to the collection requires persistence. Fantastic alternative requires two Unwanted data between items in both procedures of the Gammadion.
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Also in , the work of Janet Rossant, a developmental biologist, helped lead to the discovery of the trophoblast stem cells. The trophoblast cell lineage is critical to the survival of mammalian embryos in utero. Since the discovery of the trophoblast, scientists have been able to use these cells to research congenital abnormalities in the blood vessels and heart. Stem cell scientists quickly became very intrigued with these human embryonic stem cells. The cells offered scientists a chance to learn how human stem cells can either remain undifferentiated or be pushed down different developmental pathways.
However, there was a problem. Human embryonic stem cells hESC were often collected from leftover fetuses from in vitro fertilization clinics. In vitro fertilization generate multiple embryos.
Many of these will not be implanted in a women. With proper consent, the extraneous embryos can be donated to stem cell science research. This may seem innocuous enough, however the word embryo is a hot button word in the United States. The pro-life and religious right were uncomfortable with any manipulation of human embryos, even if the embryo were destined to be discarded. It fell upon president George W. Bush to weigh in on the issue of human embryonic stem cells.
On February , George W. Bush, requested a review of the NIH guidelines. On August , Bush made his decision and enacted a policy to limit funding for embryonic stem cell research to 19 pre-existing human embryonic stem cell lines. This was a huge setback to the stem cell research community.
Fortunately, state level funding is also a possibility. California took the lead in state sponsored stem cell research. I remember this moment vividly. This was an exciting time. The state level funding was a breath of life into hESC research.
President George W. Throughout the s, it became clear that the federal restriction on human embryonic stem cell research was misguided and constituted federal overreach. On March 9, , President Barack Obama issued an executive order that removed many of these federal restrictions. That was a good moment for the stem cell community. However, the unfortunate reality is that any stem cell science involving human embryos will always be politically charged.
We should also take a moment to reflect on an unfortunate incident that ballooned into an enormous international scandal. In , a Korean veterinarian and scientist named Woo Suk Hwang published a breakthrough paper in Science. Hwang claimed that his group at Seoul National University had successfully cloned human embryos. Hwang performed this remarkable feat through somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT. This means you collect human eggs, pop the egg nucleus out and pop in an adult nucleus from another adult human.
You then allow the egg to develop into an embryo a new human. In theory, the new embryo is a clone of whomever donated the adult nucleus.
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The science community already knew cloning was possible with other animals sheep, mice, cows, ext. Yet, nobody had succeeded in cloning a human. Hwang claimed he had accomplished human cloning and he also claimed he derived embryonic stem cells from this cloned embryo. The international community was very impressed…for about a year. Upon closer scrutiny, everything fell apart. Human cloning aside, there is possibly immense value in using SCNT to generate embryonic stem cells that are a perfect match for a human adult.
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