However, Napoleon crushed the Prussians at Jena on 14 October However, in the French were utterly defeated in Russia. In Prussia joined Russia in the war against the French. Austria also joined and in October the combined armies defeated the French at the battle of Leipzig. After Napoleon's final defeat in the Congress of Vienna met to decide the fate of Europe.
It consisted of 38 states. An assembly called the Bundestag made up of delegates from the states was formed. Prussia was the biggest winner of the peace. It gained the Rhineland and Westphalia. The population of Prussia increased and it gained valuable mineral resources. Prussia became increasingly important in German affairs.
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In the Prussians and other German states formed a customs union called the Zollverein. Furthermore, in the s Germany began to industrialize. One sign of this was the opening of the first German railway in from Nuremberg and Furth. As Prussia industrialized, it grew stronger and stronger while its rival, Austria remained an agricultural country and so grew relatively weaker.
Meanwhile an Austrian minister named Metternich tried to prevent the ideas of the French Revolution spreading in Germany. In there were student bodies in German universities called Burschenschaften. On 23 March a member of one killed a writer called August von Kotzebue.
Metternich used this as an excuse to introduce press censorship and strict supervision of universities. His measures were called the Karlsbad decrees. However, it proved impossible to put the genie back in the bottle. In Baden and Bavaria introduced liberal constitutions. So did Wurttemberg in and Hessen-Darmstadt in Furthermore, in a revolution in France triggered riots in parts of Germany and some German rulers were forced to make concessions. In Brunswick, Hesse and Saxony all introduced new constitutions.
However, in Prussia and Austria, all liberal movements were repressed.
Then, after there were a series of bad harvests. There was also a recession and high unemployment. Discontent erupted in revolution in In February another revolution in France triggered demonstrations and unrest across Europe, including Germany. At first, the rulers were so alarmed they backed down and made concessions. However, they soon regained their nerve.
In Prussia on 18 March , the king announced he was willing to make some reforms. However Prussian troops fired at some demonstrators in Berlin and in the ensuing fighting many people were killed. Afraid of further unrest the king decided to appease the demonstrators.
On 19 March , he ordered the troops to leave Berlin. On 21 March , he rode through Berlin dressed in the revolutionary colors, red, gold and black. Then in May , an elected assembly representing all Germany met in Frankfurt. The Frankfurt parliament discussed German unity. However, the rulers soon regained their confidence and they began to crack down on the revolutionaries. However, he rejected the offer. The Frankfurt parliament gradually dispersed and its members went home.
Meanwhile, in European rulers began to use their armies to put down rebellions. Soon the old order returned. Then, in the Danish king tried to annex the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Both Prussia and Austria fought a short war against Denmark in As a result, Prussia and Austria were given joint administration of the two duchies. Disagreements with Austria over the duchies gave Prussia a pretext to start a war in It was over within a short period.
On 3 July Prussia won a great victory over the Austrians at Koniggratz. Afterwards, a peace treaty created the North German Federation dominated by Prussia. Austria was expelled from German affairs. Bismarck, the German chancellor, then quarreled with France over the issue of who was to succeed to the Spanish throne. The French declared war on 19 July However, the French were utterly defeated at the battle of Sedan on 2 September and they made peace in February Meanwhile the southern German states agreed to become part of a new German Empire with the Prussian king as emperor.
William I was proclaimed emperor on 18 January In the late 19th century Germany industrialized rapidly. By the end of the century, it rivaled Britain as an industrial power. The two powers agreed to come to each other's aid in the event of a war with Russia. Bismarck, the German chancellor also campaigned against socialism. In the late 19th century it was a growing force in Germany.
Bismarck tried to take the wind out of Socialism's sails by introducing welfare measures. In he introduced sickness insurance. In he introduced accident insurance. Then in , he introduced old age pensions. However, socialism continued to grow in Germany and by the Social Democratic Party was the largest party in the Reichstag. Finally, Bismarck resigned in Bismarck always pursued friendly relations with Britain but under his successors it was different. From under Admiral Tirpitz Germany began expanding its navy. Britain, the largest naval power, was alarmed. Furthermore, Europe became divided into two armed camps, with Germany and Austria-Hungary one side and Britain, France and Russia on the other.
The spark that ignited war came on 28 June when the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo. In August the German army overran Belgium and marched on Paris. However, they were defeated at the battle of the Marne in September.
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Both sides began a 'race for the sea'. Both sides reached it at the same time.
They then dug trenches and years of deadlock followed. In the east the Germany was more successful. They crushed the Russians at the battle of Tannenberg. Russia gradually weakened and finally made peace by the treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March Meanwhile, in Germany introduced unrestricted submarine warfare, which meant that ships from any nation trying to trade with the allies would be sunk. In March Germany launched a series of assaults on the British and French lines. However, they failed to break through and on 8 August , the British counter-attacked with tanks.
Furthermore, in September, the Americans began an offensive against the Germans. Slowly the allies advanced and on 29 September General Hindenburg advised the government that the war could not be won. The Kaiser abdicated on 9 November and the Social Democrats formed a new government.
hukusyuu-mobile.com/wp-content/camera/880-app-to-spy.php On 11 November they were forced to sign an armistice with the allies. However although the Kaiser went the 'pillars' of the old regime, the generals, civil servants and judges remained. A new constitution was drawn up but it had a fatal weakness. It used a system of complete proportional representation. This meant there was a huge number of parties in the Reichstag, none of them ever had a majority of seats and Germany was ruled by weak coalition governments.
Worse, under Article 48 the President could ignore the Reichstag and pass laws of his own choosing. This was called rule by decree. In the German government were forced to sign the Versailles Treaty. However, the vast majority of Germans bitterly resented the Versailles Treaty. Firstly the Germans were not consulted on the treaty and they resented being dictated to. They also resented the 'war guilt' clause, which blamed Germany and its allies for causing the war.
Worse under the treaty, Germany lost a significant part of its territory and its population.
- History of Germany.
- Rural Protest in the Weimar Republic.
- Sources and Bibliography | University of Nottingham?
A section of land called the Polish corridor was given to Poland so East Prussia was cut off from the main part of Germany.
Related Rural Protest in the Weimar Republic: The Free Peasantry in the Rhineland and Bavaria
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