Top 10 Design Evolution : A Handbook Of Basic Design Principles Applied In Contemporary Design
Psychological responses can be learned or hereditary, with past experiences, cultural constructs and social norms playing a significant role in the psychological response mechanism. Physiological responses encompass our aural, musculoskeletal, respiratory, circadian systems and overall physical comfort. Physiological responses triggered by connections with nature include relaxation of muscles, as well as lowering of diastolic blood pressure and stress hormone i.
Park et al. Short term stress that increases heart rate and stress hormone levels, such as from encountering an unknown but complex and information-rich space, or looking over a banister to 8 stories below, is suggested to be beneficial to regulating physiological health The physiological system needs to be tested regularly, but only enough for the body to remain resilient and adaptive.
Physiological responses to environmental stressors can be buffered through design, allowing for the restoration of bodily resources before system damage occurs Steg, The table illustrates the functions of each of the 14 Patterns in supporting stress reduction, cognitive performance, emotion and mood enhancement and the human body.
Biophilic design is the designing for people as a biological organism, respecting the mind-body systems as indicators of health and well-being in the context of what is locally appropriate and responsive. Good biophilic design draws from influential perspectives — health conditions, socio-cultural norms and expectations, past experiences, frequency and duration of the user experience, the many speeds at which it may be encountered, and user perception and processing of the experience — to create spaces that are inspirational, restorative, and healthy, as well as integrative with the functionality of the place and the urban ecosystem to which it is applied.
Above all, biophilic design must nurture a love of place. Increasingly dense urban environments, coupled with rising land values, elevate the importance of biophilic design across a spatial continuum from new and existing buildings, to parks and streetscapes and to campus, urban and regional planning. Each context supports a platform for myriad opportunities for integrative biophilic design, and mainstreaming healthy building practices for people and society.
Discussed here in brief are some key perspectives that may help focus the planning and design processes. To identify design strategies and interventions that restore or enhance well-being, project teams should understand the health baseline or performance needs of the target population. One approach is to ask: what is the most biophilic space we can conceivably design? Another is to ask: how can biophilic design improve performance metrics already used by the client e. As many biological responses to design occur together e.
Health outcomes associated with biophilic spaces are of interest to building and portfolio managers and human resources administrators, because they inform long term design and measurement best practices, and to planners, policy makers and others because they inform public health policy and urban planning. Biophilic design patterns are flexible and replicable strategies for enhancing the user experience that can be implemented under a range of circumstances. Just as lighting design for a classroom will be different than for a spa or home library, biophilic design interventions are based on the needs of a specific population in a particular space, and are likely to be developed from a series of evidence-based biophilic design patterns, ideally with a degree of monitoring and evaluation for efficacy.
For example, a project team may embrace the Visual Connection with Nature pattern to enhance the workplace experience for a series of interior fit-outs for a portfolio of offices.
The strategy would be to improve views and bring plants into the space; the interventions may include installing a green wall, orienting desks to maximize views to outdoors, and initiating an employee stipend for desk plants. The detail, location, and the extent to which each of these interventions is implemented will differ for each of the offices in the portfolio.
A project team charged with reducing stress among emergency room nurses at the local hospital may intervene by replacing the abstract art with landscape paintings on the walls of the staffroom and installing a small garden and seating area in the adjacent interior courtyard. While this project also uses the Visual Connection with Nature pattern, the selected interventions specifically target stress reduction for emergency room nurses based on a shared space they utilize routinely. Patterns in combination tend to increase the likelihood of health benefits of a space.
Incorporating a diverse range of design strategies can accommodate the needs of various user groups from differing cultures and demographics and create an environment that is psycho-physiologically and cognitively restorative. Adding multiple biophilic strategies for the sake of diversity may backfire unless they are integrative and supporting a unified design intent. When planning for implementation, common questions recur, such as how much is enough and what makes a good design great.
A high quality intervention may be defined by the richness of content, user accessibility and, as mentioned above, diversity of strategies. A single high quality intervention can be more effective and have greater restorative potential than several low quality interventions. Climate, cost and other variables may influence or limit feasibility of certain interventions, but should not be considered an obstacle to achieving a high quality application. For example, multiple instances of Prospect with a shallow to moderate depth of field and limited information in the viewshed may not be as effective at prompting the desired response as a single powerful instance of Prospect with a moderate to high depth of field and an information-rich viewshed.
Identifying the most appropriate duration of exposure to a pattern, or combination of patterns, can be difficult. The ideal exposure time is likely dependent upon the user and desired effect, but as a general guideline, empirical evidence shows that positive emotions, mental restoration and other benefits can occur in as little as 5 to 20 minutes of immersion in nature When a long duration of exposure is not possible or desired, positioning biophilic design interventions along paths that channel high levels of foot traffic will help improve frequency of access.
Consider too that micro-restorative experiences — brief sensory interactions with nature that promote a sense of well-being — while often designed in response to space-restriction, are more readily implementable, replicable and often more accessible than larger interventions; frequent exposure to these small interventions may contribute to a compounded restoration response.
Questions abound on matters of duration of exposure and frequency of access: How persistent is mental restoration over different terms of exposure to nature?
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Do the improvements continue incrementally with more exposure, or do they plateau? What combinations of design patterns can help optimize a biophilic experience? We hope these questions and others will be explored as research continues on the intersections of neuroscience and design Ryan et al.
Material Connection with Nature and other biophilic design patterns can be applied across all climates and environments, but may have different resulting forms, aesthetics and materials specific to their respective regions. No two places are the same; this presents both challenges and opportunities for creativity in the application of biophilic design patterns. Discussed here are some key considerations that may help frame, prioritize, or influence decision making in the design process.
Historically, humans have built shelters from locally available materials that reflected the regional ecology; form and function were in response to the topography and climate. Known as vernacular architecture, these buildings and constructed landscapes connect to where they inhabit. Use of local timber, climate responsive design and xeriscaping — using native, drought tolerant plants to create landscape designs that resemble the climate of the surrounding landscape — can each be effective strategies in designing for a resilient, biophilic experience.
Whether rural or urban, not all natural or tempered environments are 'green' in color, nor should they be. Desert species and terrain can be equally important in reinforcing a biophilic connection to place. Some habitats may engender a stronger positive response than others, but a biodiverse savanna-like scene will most likely be preferred over an area abundant yet trackless sand desert, the open ocean, or a dark forest. In rural environments, human-nature interactions are abundant, and this regular exposure to nature has restorative qualities that we perhaps take for granted.https://lor24.com.ua/themes/canal/5892-severodvinsk-sluzhba-znakomstv.php
Design Evolution: A Handbook of Basic Design Principles Applied in Contemporary Design
Suburban settings are typically rife with intuitively applied biophilic design; the suburban yard with shade trees, grass, low shrubs, and beds of flowers is essentially an analogue of the African savanna. Porches and balconies offer more than just quaintness and real estate value; many suburban homes and urban rowhouses are raised 18 inches or more, creating a Prospect-Refuge condition with views from windows, stoops and porches.
The potential human health benefits are undervalued in high-density settings where residential towers with balconies are both limited and only available to high-paying tenants. Land in urban environments is limited and at a premium, so it may be unrealistic to replicate features more suitable to a rural environment in terms of scale or abundance.
As such, biophilic design strategies will differ depending on the local political climate, zoning, geography, land availability and ownership. In the narrow streets of Vienna, Austria, restaurants rent parking spaces for the entire summer and set up tables and temporary landscaping to provide outdoor dining. This brings nature into the urban core and within walking distance to a greater number of people, opening up the possibility for micro-restorative experiences.
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Beatley, Biophilic design patterns should be scaled to the surrounding environment and to the predicted user population for the space. Patterns can be applied at the scale of a micro-space, a room, a building, a neighborhood or campus, and even an entire district or city. Each of these spaces will present different design challenges depending on the programming, user types and dynamics, climate, culture, and various physical parameters, as well as existing or needed infrastructure. Size and availability of space are two of the most common factors influencing feasibility of biophilic design patterns.
For instance, the Prospect pattern [ P11 ] typically requires significant space.
The Principles of Design and Their Importance
Other patterns, such as Connection with Natural Systems [ P7 ], may be more feasible where there is access to an outdoor space, which is a common challenge in dense urban environments. For instance, the psychological benefits of nature actually have been shown to increase with exposure to higher levels of biodiversity Fuller el al. From this we can derive that small, micro-restorative experiences that are also biodiverse are likely to be particularly effective at engendering a restorative biophilic experience.
Micro-restorative experiences might include moments of sensory contact with nature through a window, television, image, painting or an aquarium. In urban environments where sensory overload is common Joye, , such experiences will be most valued and impactful when situated in locations with high foot traffic, allowing for a greater frequency of access to trigger the desired biophilic response.
Traditional Japanese doorway gardens are a perfect example of replicable small-scale interventions. The speed at which one moves through an environment, whether rural or urban, impacts the level of observable detail and the perceived scale of buildings and spaces. The General Motors "Tech Center" in Warren, Michigan, designed by architect Eero Saarinen in , is designed to be experienced at 30 mph, so for the pedestrian, the scale seems oversized and the spacing of buildings is oddly far apart.
Similarly, the landscaping along freeway and highway greenbelts is typically done in large swaths for instant interpretability. In contrast, a pedestrian focused environment will have more fine-grained details in the landscape design to allow for pause, exploration, and a more intimate experience. On the other hand, interior fit-outs are an excellent opportunity to introduce Natural Analogue patterns which can be applied to surfaces like walls, floors, and ceilings as well as furniture and window treatments. In addition, not all aspects of biophilia are space dependent.
Some patterns e. Major renovations, new construction and master planning provide more opportunities for incorporating biophilic design patterns that are coupled with systems integration at the building, campus or community scale. Biophobia is a fear of or aversion to nature or living things Ulrich, Similarly, ecophobia refers to an unreasonable but deeply conditioned disgust for or reaction against natural forms or places.
While biophobia is arguably genetic, to a degree, both phobias are learnt response mechanisms through direct experience, culture and education which, according to Salingaros and Masden , includes architectural education. When tempered with an element of safety e. Current evolutionary hypotheses and theories state that contemporary landscape preferences are influenced by human evolution, reflecting the innate landscape qualities that enhanced survival for humanity through time. These schools of thought include the biophilia hypothesis Wilson, and Appleton, , and the preference matrix While empirical research has shown that there is a degree of universality to landscape preferences among humans, preferences have been modified by cultural influences, experiences and socio-economic factors Tveit et al, Variations in landscape preferences have thus emerged among immigrants, ethnic groups, subcultures, genders, and age groups.
Cultural constructs, social inertia and ecological literacy suffuse differing perspectives on what constitutes natural, nature, wild, or beautiful Tveit et al, ; Environmental Generational Amnesia and the Ecological Aesthetic Theory help explain how some perspectives may have evolved, and these differences come to bear across countries and regions, as well as among neighborhoods within the same city.
And while ethnicity can play a role in influencing an individual's landscape preferences, cultures and groups across the world utilize landscapes and space in different ways Frequency of use, nature of use, participation rates and purpose of visit all vary drastically between nationalities, cultures and sub-groups. These factors do not mean that certain ethnic groups have a lower appreciation for landscape or a less significant connection with nature. These groups simply utilize and interact with nature in ways that are compatible with their culture and needs.
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Identifying early on what those needs may be will help define parameters for appropriate design strategies and interventions. One of the cultural challenges to upholding that human-nature bond, as well as environmental stewardship, is a phenomenon known as Environmental Generational Amnesia, the shifting baseline for what is considered a normal environmental condition as it continues to degrade.
As environmental degradation continues, the baseline continues to shift with each ensuing generation, each perceiving this degraded condition as the norm or non-degraded condition.
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