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Relationship between social engagement and diabetes incidence in a middle-aged population: Results from a longitudinal nationwide survey in Japan. Comprehensive assessment of risk factors for causespecific deaths among Japanese infants using linked Birth and Death data from Vital statistics in Resident and facility characteristics associated with care-need level deterioration in long-term care welfare facilities in Japan.
Comments: Issues to be considered for trial introduction of cost effectiveness analysis to fee-for service system in Japanese. Spillover effect of Japanese long-term care insurance as an employment promotion policy for family caregivers. Length of staying at home as an index of evaluating community-based integrated care systems - Using nationally representative long-term care claims data for 8 years - in Japanese. Changes in social capital and depressive states of middle-aged adults in Japan.
Impact of long-hours family caregiving on non-fatal coronary heart disease risk in middle-aged people: Results from a longitudinal nationwide survey in Japan. Comments: Public long-term care insurance as a policy for promoting employment in Japanese. Changes in mortality inequalities across occupations in Japan : A national register-based study of absolute and relative measures, Comments: Uneven distribution of medical resources and the living area of the elderly in Japanese.
Development of social capital scale from a national longitudinal survey and examination of its validity and reliability in Japanese. Short- and long-term effects of surcharge and anti-smoking policy on tobacco consumption: A lesson from nationally representative household survey in Taiwan. Difference in labor supply of middle-aged female family caregivers across prefectures - Based on comprehensive survey of living conditions in in Japanese. Retiring for better health? Evidence from health incestment behaviors in Japan.
Comments: Trend of working status of cancer patients based on nationally representative data in Japanese. Comments: Relation between social network and health in Japanese. Disability, poverty, and role of the basic livelihood security system on health services utilization among the elderly in South Korea. Comments: Welcome to the world of health economics in Japanese. The relationship between raising a child with a disability and the mental health of mothers compared to raising a child without disability in japan.
A trial to understand the status of oral migrants using nationally representative long-term claims data in Japanese. Relation of depression with health behaviors and social conditions of dependent community-dwelling older persons in the Republic of Chile.
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Effects of preventive long-term care on physical and psychological health status for the elderly: Evidence from a "Salon for the Elderly" in Abashiri City in Japanese. A Though of Accumulation of human capital -beyond individual and across generations- in Japanese. Comments: Horizon of Policy Science - the possibility of field experiment - in Japanese. Age and sex differences of risk factors of activity limitations in Japanese older adults.
Observation nonexperimental data and field experiment - For causality reasoning - in Japanese. Comments: At-home care based on nationally representative data in Japanese. Election, implementation, and social capital in schoolbased management: Evidence from a randomized field experiment on the COGES project in Burkina Faso.
Budget systems and expenditure for national health insurance and nursing care insurance. Comments: Look back on revision of fee-for-service as of April in Japanese. Does marriage make us healthier?
Inter-country comparative evidence from China, Japan, and Korea. Mental health of parents as caregivers of children with disabilities: based on Japanese nationwide survey. The number of children with disability is increasing gradually in Japan. Previous researches in other countries have reported that parents as caregivers CGs of children with disability have mental health problems, but the actual situation has no Comments: What is evidence?
How possibly Do leisure and social activities impact mental health of middle-Aged adults in Japan? This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are This study examines how the and revisions of the fee-for-service system have affected patient—nurse ratios and the average length of hospital stays in Japan.
The empirical results show that hospitals are quite responsive to changes in pr Comments: Japanese-version of social security number "my number" - for making us a true beneficiary in Japanese. Exploring the causal relationship between hospital length of stay and re-hospitalization among Japanese AMI patients. Discussion: NDB of use of the current situation, challenges, recommendations in Japanese.
Descriptive analysis of service use covered by long-term care insurance in Japan - based on population-based claims data. Dialogue: Evidence-based policy making for healthcare policies - Looking forward to the society in the next 20 years in Japanese. Is That Policy Really Valid?
International Journal of Public Health Science. Mental health problems during pregnancy and postpartum periods are one of the alarming health issues among women in Japan. This study analyzed data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 K6 , specific psychosocial stressors, and working status Health benefits of reduced patient cost sharing in Japan.
Methods Study data came from a nationally-repre It, however, noted that the Japanese economy itself is expected to continue recovering moderately, led by domestic demand. Learning lessons from a last-minute rise and subsequent fall in consumption that occurred before and after Japan raised the consumption tax rate from 5 percent to 8 percent in April , the report stressed that it is important for the government to level off consumption around the time of a planned consumption tax increase from 8 percent to 10 percent in October.
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Some may think that the Bank can raise interest rates because it can control them as it wants. But the reality is not that simple. Why have interest rates remained low in the first place? Interest rates are low not only in Japan but in other advanced economies. In economics, it is said that if you want to raise a rate, cut it first; if you want to cut a rate, raise it first. A central bank lowers interest rates when the economy slips into a downturn with a higher risk of deflation. Then, as the inflation rate goes up, reflecting the economic recovery, a central bank raises interest rates accordingly.
Let me elaborate on this. Monetary policy today is based on the following understanding. The level of the interest rate that balances savings and investment and neither accelerates nor decelerates the economy is called the natural rate of interest, or the equilibrium real interest rate. A central bank conducts monetary policy using the natural rate of interest as a reference point. Specifically, at a time of an economic downturn, a central bank stimulates the economy by guiding the actual interest rate to a level below the natural rate of interest.
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When the economy is overheated, a central bank raises the interest rate to a level above the natural rate of interest. As the natural rate of interest is just an estimate based on a theoretical model and entails uncertainties, it should be interpreted with a certain latitude. In the case of Japan, the natural rate of interest declined sharply in the early s.
In other advanced economies, the rates have decreased since the Global Financial Crisis. This suggests that the natural rates of interest have been affected by the bubble burst as well as financial and economic crises. Generally speaking, the reason behind a decline in the natural rate of interest is one of the following: an increase in savings, a decrease in investment, or a combination of these two. For example, when households and firms seek to increase their savings in the event of an economic crisis, the supply of funds in the economy will increase and the natural rate of interest will decline.
If growth expectations deteriorate due partly to an economic crisis or a decrease in productivity, and thereby firms become less willing to make investment, actual investment will decrease and the natural rate of interest consequently will decline. Demographic changes such as the declining birthrate and aging population also are pointed out as causes of the decline in the natural rate of interest.
In a case where the natural rate of interest declines for any reason, a central bank needs to lower interest rates accordingly because otherwise the economy will be under deflationary pressure.
The 10th APRU Population Aging Conference
In Japan, short-term nominal interest rates already have reached close to 0 percent since the s. In light of this situation, the Bank has taken such measures as 1 lowering long-term interest rates through purchases of Japanese government bonds JGBs , 2 introducing a negative interest rate policy to guide short-term nominal interest rates to negative territory, 3 adopting an inflation-overshooting commitment, under which the Bank will continue expanding the monetary base until the year-on-year rate of increase in the observed CPI exceeds 2 percent and stays above that level in a stable manner, and 4 introducing forward guidance stating that the Bank intends to maintain the current extremely low levels of short- and long-term interest rates for an extended period of time.
http://pierreducalvet.ca/map214.php Once an economy falls into deflation, households and firms will strengthen their expectations that deflation may continue. Especially when deflation lasts for a long time as in Japan, such expectations will heighten further. In that case, firms and households will perceive interest rates as higher than the actually low level of nominal interest rates.
We call such perceived interest rates, which take into account inflation expectations, real interest rates. The Bank's price stability target of 2 percent is expected to encourage firms and households to strongly hold expectations that prices will rise steadily, resulting in a decline in real interest rates. The word "normalization" is often used with regard to monetary policy, but it is an ambiguous term with an unclear definition.
The ultimate objective of monetary policy is the sound development of the national economy. In other words, it is not until the economic and price situation is normalized that monetary policy also will be normalized. Amid low interest rates and low inflation observed globally, central banks and academics have had discussions that mainly regard the monetary policy framework. The Bank of Canada reviews its monetary policy framework every five years; the Federal Reserve recently has discussed whether to update its framework.
First, through the experience of Japan's battle against deflation and the U. Second, the inflation target framework has been proved effective even in the time of the Global Financial Crisis and its aftermath, but it has been pointed out that, even in the United States, where economic and price developments are relatively firm, interest rates have remained lower and room for monetary policy response has become smaller than before.
Under these circumstances, there are ongoing debates in the United States and other economies on what monetary policy framework should be adopted with a view to achieving the medium- to long-term price stability. Various approaches have been proposed, such as setting a higher inflation target and introducing average inflation targeting, price-level targeting, the inflation target range, and nominal GDP targeting Chart Every approach has its own advantages and challenges. Of course, Japan cannot be treated the same as other economies such as the United States, where the inflation rate is already at around 2 percent.
Related Aging Issues in the United States and Japan (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report)
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